pmeg6030 Chip IC
The hybrid system consists of an pmeg6030 IC chip and a microfluidic channel fabricated on top. Biological cells attached to magnetic beads are suspended inside the microfluidic system that maintains biocompatibility.
A microcoil array in the IC produces programmable, spatially-patterned magnetic fields to simultaneously manipulate multiple individual bead-bound cells with precise position control. Two prototypes validate the proposed approach.
Materials and Methods for IC Package Assemblies
IC is either the pinnacle or the base of electronics hierarchy, and both positions are arguably right. The IC represents the pinnacle in terms of electronic device (i.e. transistor) density, but it is also the starting point, the fundamental building block, and foundation for most of today’s electronic systems.
As such, ICs pmeg6030 are not monolithic or fundamental electronic structures. IC types differ significantly (analog, digital, RF, sensor, etc.), as do their packaging needs and requirements differ. This article provides an overview of IC packaging technology, exploring, in broad-brush fashion, the materials and processes used to create these indispensable structures.
While IC physical constructions, applications, and I/O counts may vary widely, the roles and functions of IC packages are fewer in number and more consistent in purpose. The IC package has several roles to play as “keeper of the chip,” but it has two primary and fundamental functions: 1) the IC package protects the die from physical damage and 2) redistributes the I/O to a more manageable pitch in assembly.
There are, as well, a number of potential secondary roles, such as providing a structure more amenable to standardization, providing a thermal path away from the die, providing protection from the potential of soft errors due to alpha particles, and providing a structure more easily disposed to electrical test and burn-in.
The package can also serve to interconnect multiple ICs pmeg6030 both directly to each other using standard interconnection technologies, such as wire bonding, and indirectly using interconnection pathways provided on the package, such as those used in hybrid packages and MCMs and currently in system-in-package (SiP) and other methods covered under the broader concept of volumetric system miniaturization and interconnection (VSMI).
With the increased interest and deployment of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and lab-on-chip devices, the package provides additional capability, such as localized access to the environment, a requirement for pressure difference, or as required for chemical or atmospheric condition analysis. There is also growing interest and activity in the development of optoelectronic packages to address the needs of this increasingly important area of activity.
There has been a significant ground shift in recent years relative to the importance and expanding role of IC packaging, to the point that the IC package has achieved a measure of parity in terms of importance with the IC itself. This is because, in many cases, the performance of the IC is gated by the IC package. As a result, a great deal of attention is being devoted to improving IC packaging technology to meet these challenges.
While there are many ways to codify IC packages, they can be most broadly separated and defined by their basic construction. Using these criteria, the two primary categories are leadframe-type packages and substrate-type packages.
The latter category can then be further subdivided into organic-laminate and ceramic-base materials. There is now also a package product family concerned with the assembly of ICs on the wafer called wafer-level packaging (WLP). Here, the packaging elements typically are constructed on the face of the wafer, resulting in a true chip-size package.
Following the definition of fundamental structure, there is the matter of how the package is presented to the next level of interconnection. For example, many legacy IC packages, such as the leadframe and the dual in-line package (DIP), are designed for either pin-in-hole solder assembly, while others, such as the pin-grid array (PGA), are designed for socketing.
Still others, such as the compliant-lead-type leadframe packages, typified by quad flat pack (QFP), the leadless-type leadframe package, and the near chip-size quad flat no-lead (QFN) package, are designed for surface mounting
While the QFP and QFN are representatives of peripherally leaded packages, there are also area array packages. The area array format for IC package I/O terminations is growing in popularity due to its inherent ability to handle high I/O without sacrificing performance and its natural area conservancy.
Ball grid array (BGA) packages are emblematic of this type of package. Due to these benefits, BGAs are found in a range of formats from tiny chip scale and wafer-level packages to larger IC packages having hundreds to thousands of I/Os. BGA packages are commonly made using organic laminate substrates, owing to the large, cost-effective manufacturing infrastructure available for their construction. BGAs are also a common format for the growing family of stacked-chip, multichip, and stacked-package structures.
Multichip packages are viewed as a practical alternative to system-on-chip (SOC) solutions. There are also newly proposed families of products based on stair-stepped packages and two-surface interconnection concepts
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