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Model Number: sp107158
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Microprocessors contain some circuits, known as registers, that store information. Registers are predetermined memory locations. Each sp107158 processor has many different types of registers. Permanent registers are used to store the preprogrammed instructions required for various operations (such as addition and multiplication).
Temporary registers store numbers that are to be operated on and also the result. Other examples of registers include the program counter (also called the instruction pointer), which contains the address in memory of the next instruction; the stack pointer (also called the stack register), which contains the address of the last instruction put into an area of memory called the stack; and the memory address register, which contains the address of where the data to be worked on is located or where the data that has been processed will be stored.
Microprocessors can perform billions of operations per second on data. In addition to computers, microprocessors are common in video game systems, televisions, cameras, and automobiles.
Microprocessors sp107158 typically have to store more data than can be held in a few registers. This additional information is relocated to special memory circuits. Memory is composed of dense arrays of parallel circuits that use their voltage states to store information. Memory also stores the temporary sequence of instructions, or program, for the microprocessor.
Manufacturers continually strive to reduce the size of memory circuits—to increase capability without increasing space. In addition, smaller components typically use less power, operate more efficiently, and cost less to manufacture.
Digital signal processors
A signal is an analog waveform—anything in the environment that can be captured electronically. A digital signal is an analog waveform that has been converted into a series of binary numbers for quick manipulation.
As the name implies, sp107158 a digital signal processor (DSP) processes signals digitally, as patterns of 1s and 0s. For instance, using an analog-to-digital converter, commonly called an A-to-D or A/D converter, a recording of someone’s voice can be converted into digital 1s and 0s. The digital representation of the voice can then be modified by a DSP using complex mathematical formulas.
For example, the DSP algorithm in the circuit may be configured to recognize gaps between spoken words as background noise and digitally remove ambient noise from the waveform. Finally, the processed signal can be converted back (by a D/A converter) into an analog signal for listening.
Digital processing can filter out background noise so fast that there is no discernible delay and the signal appears to be heard in “real time.” For instance, such processing enables “live” television broadcasts to focus on a quarterback’s signals in an American gridiron football game.
DSPs are also used to produce digital effects on live television. For example, the yellow marker lines displayed during the football game are not really on the field; a DSP adds the lines after the cameras shoot the picture but before it is broadcast. Similarly, some of the advertisements seen on stadium fences and billboards during televised sporting events are not really there.
An application-specific IC (ASIC) can be either a digital or an analog circuit. As their name implies, ASICs are not reconfigurable; they perform only one specific function. For example, a speed controller IC for a remote control car is hard-wired to do one job and could never become a microprocessor. An ASIC does not contain any ability to follow alternate instructions.
Radio-frequency ICs (RFICs) are widely used in mobile phones and wireless devices. RFICs are analog circuits that usually run in the frequency range of 3 kHz to 2.4 GHz (3,000 hertz to 2.4 billion hertz), circuits that would work at about 1 THz (1 trillion hertz) being in development. They are usually thought of as ASICs even though some may be configurable for several similar applications.
Most semiconductor circuits that operate above 500 MHz (500 million hertz) cause the electronic components and their connecting paths to interfere with each other in unusual ways. Engineers must use special design techniques to deal with the physics of high-frequency microelectronic interactions.
A special type of RFIC is known as a monolithic microwave IC (MMIC; also called microwave monolithic IC). These circuits usually run in the 2- to 100-GHz range, or microwave frequencies, and are used in radar systems, in satellite communications, and as power amplifiers for cellular telephones.
Just as sound travels faster through water than through air, electron velocity is different through each type of semiconductor material. Silicon offers too much resistance for microwave-frequency circuits, and so the compound gallium arsenide (GaAs) is often used for MMICs. Unfortunately, GaAs is mechanically much less sound than silicon. It breaks easily, so GaAs wafers are usually much more expensive to build than silicon wafers.
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