Type: Voltage Regulator
Model Number: TEA6851HN/V TEA6851HN TEA6851HN/102 TEA6851H/V102 TEA6851/V102 6851HN
Integrated circuits (ICs) are a keystone of modern electronics. They are the heart and brains of most circuits. They are the ubiquitous little black “chips” you find on just about every circuit board. Unless you’re some kind of crazy, analog electronics wizard, you’re likely to have at least one IC in every electronics project you build, so it’s important to understand them, inside and out.
Integrated Circuits Tea6851 Overview
An IC is a collection of electronic components — resistors, transistors, capacitors, etc. — all stuffed into a tiny chip, and connected together to achieve a common goal. They come in all sorts of flavors: single-circuit logic gates, op amps, 555 timers, voltage regulators, motor controllers, microcontrollers, microprocessors, FPGAs…the list just goes on-and-on.
Integrated circuits are one of the more fundamental concepts of electronics. They do build on some previous knowledge, though, so if you aren’t familiar with these topics, consider reading their tutorials first.
The real “meat” to an IC is a complex layering of semiconductor wafers, copper, and other materials, which interconnect to form transistors, resistors or other components in a circuit. The cut and formed combination of these wafers is called a die.
While the IC itself is tiny, the wafers of semiconductor and layers of copper it consists of are incredibly thin. The connections between the layers are very intricate.
An IC die is the circuit in its smallest possible form, too small to solder or connect to. To make our job of connecting to the IC easier, we package the die. The IC package turns the delicate, tiny die, into the black chip we’re all familiar with.
The package is what encapsulates the integrated circuit die and splays it out into a device we can more easily connect to. Each outer connection on the die is connected via a tiny piece of gold wire to a pad or pin on the package. Pins are the silver, extruding terminals on an IC, which go on to connect to other parts of a circuit. These are of utmost importance to us, because they’re what will go on to connect to the rest of the components and wires in a circuit.
There are many different types of packages, each of which has unique dimensions, mounting-types, and/or pin-counts.
All Tea6851 are polarized, and every pin is unique in terms of both location and function. This means the package has to have some way to convey which pin is which. Most ICs will use either a notch or a dot to indicate which pin is the first pin. (Sometimes both, sometimes one or the other.)
Once you know where the first pin is, the remaining pin numbers increase sequentially as you move counter-clockwise around the chip.
One of the main distinguishing package type characteristics is the way they mount to a circuit board. All packages fall into one of two mounting types: through-hole (PTH) or surface-mount (SMD or SMT). Through-hole packages are generally bigger, and much easier to work with. They’re designed to be stuck through one side of a board and soldered to the other side.
Surface-mount packages range in size from small to minuscule. They are all designed to sit on one side of a circuit board and be soldered to the surface. The pins of a SMD package either extrude out the side, perpendicular to the chip, or are sometimes arranged in a matrix on the bottom of the chip. ICs in this form factor are not very “hand-assembly-friendly.” They usually require special tools to aid in the process.
DIP, short for dual in-line package, is the most common through-hole IC package you’ll encounter. These little chips have two parallel rows of pins extending perpendicularly out of a rectangular, black, plastic housing.
Each of the pins on a DIP IC are spaced by 0.1″ (2.54mm), which is a standard spacing and perfect for fitting into breadboards and other prototyping boards. The overall dimensions of a DIP package depend on its pin count, which may be anywhere from four to 64.
The area between each row of pins is perfectly spaced to allow DIP ICs to straddle the center area of a breadboard. This provides each of the pins its own row in the board, and it makes sure they don’t short to each other.
Aside from being used in breadboards, DIP ICs can also be soldered into PCBs. They’re inserted into one side of the board and soldered into place on the other side. Sometimes, instead of soldering directly to the IC, it’s a good idea to socket the chip. Using sockets allows for a DIP IC to be removed and swapped out, if it happens to “let its blue smoke out.”
There is a huge variety of surface-mount package types these days. In order to work with surface-mount packaged ICs, you usually need a custom printed circuit board (PCB) made for them, which has a matching pattern of copper on which they’re soldered.
Here are a few of the more common SMD package types out there, ranging in hand-solderability from “doable” to “doable, but only with special tools” to “doable only with very special, usually automated tools”.
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